vii: Which leader “serenely” hastened his departure from life “to enter history”?
viii: Where did James I surrender to the British prior to a diplomatic resolution?
i: i is Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier aka TIRADENTES was hanged on 21 April 1792, while agitating for Brazil's independence from the Portuguese colonial power. (Googled by jauntyalan)
ii: The CATEDRAL METROPLITANA NOSSA SENHORA APARECIDA is apparently often compared to Liverpool's. (Googled by jauntyalan)
iii: SÓCRATES (a doctor) was part of the "Corinthians' Democracy" at the club Corinthians in the '70s, the players making democratic decisions regarding the football side of matters at the club (considered rather a big deal in dictatorship-era Brazil). (Known by thebopkids, google-confirmed by jauntyalan)
iv: is a JAGANDA at the MOUTH OF THE AMAZON (Dacosta and Ortega are character's in Jules Verne's Eight_Hundred Leagues on the Amazon (Googled by jauntyalan)
v: The leper Antonio Francisco Lisboa (c.1730-1814), aka ALEIJADINHO ("little cripple" in Portuguese) made statues for many churches in Brazil, including TWEVLE PROPHETS at the Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos at Congonhas. (Googled by dubdobdee, following jeff_worrell's suggestion the theme was BRAZIL.:0
vi: This is PICO DE BANDEIRA, once thought the highest mountain in Brazil, now considered the third highest. (Google-confirmed by jeff_worrell)
ix: Vexillology is the study of flags, Spica is a star from the constellation Virgo, which appears on the BRAZILIAN FLAG. Semi-guessed by thebopkids, google-confirmed by jeff_worrell)
x: The BRAZIL NUT, whose genus Bertholletia is named for the Savoyard chemist Claude Louis Berthollet. (Googled by jauntyalan)